With success: in 2006 there were no more cases of rabies recorded in Germany

Since multiple sclerosis occurs in relapses, acute treatment is available for precisely these relapses. To relieve symptoms, cortisone supplements are prescribed, which help support the immune system. 

According to the German Multiple Sclerosis Society (DMSG), the treatment of multiple sclerosis is based primarily on three pillars:

the therapy of the acute relapse (relapse therapy). Acute inflammatory reactions are inhibited by means of cortisone or plasmapheresis (a type of blood wash). The course-modifying therapy (basic therapy, long-term immunotherapy). It is intended to extend the symptomatic therapy, supplemented by rehabilitation procedures. The aim is to alleviate symptoms and ailments such as muscle spasms, pain, balsal dysfunction and others. Diagnosis in four steps: This is how the doctor diagnoses MS MS symptoms in the early stages: Multiple sclerosis: ten warning signs Lots of fish, little meat: the right diet for multiple sclerosis Genes, viruses, the environment: possible causes of MS

The different forms of therapy can also be used in combination and are individually adapted. This depends, among other things, on the age, gender and the individual clinical picture of the respective patient. In addition to drug therapy, MS is also treated with non-drug methods, such as physiotherapy, speech therapy, or psychotherapy. 

Sources used: German Multiple Sclerosis Society (DMSG) Competence Network Multiple SclerosisDeutsches ÄrzteblattOwn researchAdditional sourcesShow less sources

Severe pain, insomnia, physical and mental exhaustion. The symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are varied. And recognizing the disease is anything but easy.


SymptomsDiagnosisRisk factorsCauseTherapy

Fibromyalgia: these are the symptoms

Fibromyalgia is a neurological disease. Literally translated means fibromyalgia "Fiber muscle pain". For example, patients suffer from long-term pain in muscles and tendons, difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep, and exhaustion. The pain persists for more than three months and is located in several regions of the body. There are also psychological problems: "Around 60 to 80 percent of them meet the criteria for a depressive or anxiety disorder", says Prof. Winfried Häuser from the Clinic for Internal Medicine 1 at the Saarbrücken Clinic.

After physical or mental exertion, those affected by the disease often have to regenerate significantly longer than healthy people. In addition, according to the German Fibromyalgia Association, they often suffer from hypersensitivity to light, noise, smell and cold.

The pain usually comes in spurts. Stress, for example, can trigger a fibromyalgia flare-up.

Diagnosing fibromyalgia: is there a test?

There are no specific blood tests and no X-rays to diagnose FMS, explains Hauser. To diagnose fibromyalgia, health professionals must look at the patient’s history carefully and do a full physical exam and several laboratory tests. Experts point out that fibromyalgia is not soft tissue rheumatism.

A general practitioner can carry out the examinations and diagnose FMS. A visit to a rheumatologist or pain therapist is sometimes recommended to confirm the diagnosis.

According to the German Fibromyalgia Association, the first symptoms of the disease appear in most cases from the age of 35. They increase in the course. Women are therefore affected significantly more often than men.

Risk factors for fibromyalgia

According to the scientific guidelines of the German Pain Society for the disease, risk factors for FMS are:

Inflammatory rheumatic diseasesFMS illness of a close relativeSmokingOverweightLess physical activityMaltreatment or abuse in childhood and adulthoodStress in the workplace

Fibromyalgia can have many causes

The causes of the disease can be varied.how to write a conclusion for a argumentative essay Experts believe that a genetic predisposition and various biological and psychological factors are responsible for fibromyalgia syndrome.

It is also noticeable that many of those affected have similar personality traits: "Most fibromyalgia patients are very sensitive, motivated and ambitious", explains Thomas Weiss from Mannheim, specialist in general medicine, psychiatry as well as psychotherapy and psychosomatic medicine. "Often in the course of life there is an excessive demand, people reach their limits – and then something happens that is difficult for them to understand."

Suddenly those affected no longer sleep well, they react more sensitively to stimuli and have vegetative complaints – nervousness, for example. "We assume that the patients’ bodies lower the stimulus threshold, which is a meaningful behavior in stressful situations due to evolution"says Weiss. For example, it used to be necessary to no longer sleep at night – as protection against danger.

Therapy: What Relieves Symptoms of Fibromyalgia

This explanation may help patients understand the condition. However, it does not eliminate the symptoms. "We often give very low-dose antidepressants for treatment"says Weiss. "This is not to say that fibromyalgia is depression in disguise, but the remedies do have mild pain relievers." And as difficult as it may be for patients with severe pain and permanent exhaustion, exercise can help alleviate the symptoms.

Ulrike Eidmann from Wuppertal also made this experience. In 1990 she was diagnosed with fibromyalgia. "I had previously been on sick leave for a long time with back pain and muscle pain, but no doctor had an explanation", she tells. "Only a three-week stay in the clinic brought me a diagnosis." In rehab she then began to move a lot again. "I started Nordic walking and cycling, and I also swam a lot."

Therapy should be tailored to the individual

Symptoms got better and eventually largely went away. At times she is now completely painless. Today she says: Every patient has to find out for himself what will help him. "It was very important for me to listen to myself and to recognize what is good for me."

When arms and legs hurt: home remedies for body aches None "Old people’s disease": Rheumatism also affects young people If the body is missing something: When to see a doctor if you are tired

However, in the view of houses, it is important not to overdo it when moving. "Exercising with medium and high loads leads to increased pain in many patients", he says. The only exceptions are people who were very good at endurance training before the onset of the disease.

Sources used: News agency dpa German Fibromyalgia Association Scientific guidelines of the German Pain SocietyAdditional sourcesShow less sources

Rabies, also called rabies, is a viral disease that is mainly transmitted to humans through the bites of mammals such as dogs, cats or foxes. It is important to act quickly so that the pathogens do not get into the brain. Below you will find information on transmission, symptoms and diagnosis as well as treatment and the situation in Germany.

What is rabies?

Rabies is a viral disease that affects the central nervous system. She is known by different names: Anger Illness, Lyssa, Rabies or Rage. The pathogens that usually enter the human body via a bite wound in dogs, cats or wild mammals are the so-called lyssaviruses. They are found in the saliva of infected animals.

Rabies: Transmission and Incubation Period

The virus spreads in the central nervous system of affected animals and is excreted in the saliva. Accordingly, the virus is transmitted through the bite of another living being. But even a simple skin lesion that an infected animal licks over can be enough to transmit rabies. However, wildlife, such as foxes, are more commonly infected with rabies. They lose their fear of people and sometimes attack them.

After a bite, the incubation period, i.e. the time between infection and the onset of the disease, is between about three to eight weeks. In rare cases it is even less than nine days. Those affected shouldn’t let it get that far: According to the health portal "NetDoctor" the disease is almost always fatal once it has broken out.

Symptoms of rabies: three stages

The symptoms of an infection with rabies show up in humans mainly in three phases. 

Initial stage (prodromal stage) In the initial stage, unspecific complaints such as headache and loss of appetite develop. Sometimes the patient becomes feverish and the bite wound begins to burn and itch. Excitation stage (acute neurological phase) In this stage, nervousness spreads, which further intensifies feelings of fear and motor restlessness. In addition, the central nervous system is already restricted in this phase. There are functional failures affecting the brain. Swallowing is sometimes made difficult by cramps. Other parts of the body can also experience convulsions. The patient produces increased saliva and tear fluid and may develop a fear of water. His neurological condition is getting worse and worse: delusions sometimes alternate with episodes of mental clarity: An aggressive phase can also turn into a depressive phase. Paralysis (coma) In this last phase of the infection, the person concerned loses control over more and more areas of the body. Foam forms in front of the mouth and the patient’s overall condition deteriorates drastically. According to the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), there is a maximum of seven days between the first signs of illness and death in an untreated patient. If the respiratory muscles fail, the infected die of paralysis.

Rabies: Diagnosis and Treatment

An acute inflammation of the brain is often a reason for the doctor to check the patient for rabies – even if there are no indications of an animal bite. However, a computed tomography shows noisy "pharmacy magazine" in most cases only unspecific changes. If there is a specific suspicion, special tests should be carried out. For example, doctors look for antibodies against the rabies pathogen in the blood of those affected. If antibodies are found in a person who has not been vaccinated against rabies, the findings indicate an infection. The so-called virus RNA, which contains the genetic information of the virus, can also be checked in saliva, nerve water and in a skin biopsy of the neck.

If rabies is suspected of being bitten by a suspicious animal, the wound should be cut out immediately and cleaned with a strong disinfectant solution. In addition, the treating doctor usually injects the wound with a serum that contains antibodies against rabies. This agent can also be injected into the muscle. This is followed by the rabies vaccination, which must be repeated at regular intervals. In the event of a bite, it is life-saving to start treatment quickly so that the deadly disease does not break out. According to the, the patient has a maximum of three days "pharmacy magazine" Time to start immunization with this so-called post-exposure prophylaxis in order to ward off the infection in good time.

In animals, treatment is different in most cases. Bitten animals are initially observed in quarantine for about ten days. If symptoms appear and the animal becomes suspicious, it should be euthanized. The vet can then examine the brain for rabies. In most cases, wild animals are euthanized immediately after a bite and tested for rabies.

Rabies in Germany

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared Germany a rabies-free country back in 2008. In the 1990s, baits with integrated vaccination protection began to be laid out. Scientists saw the greatest danger of infection in wildlife, especially foxes. Therefore, they developed the oral vaccination, which should make the animals immune to the disease. With success: in 2006 there were no more cases of rabies recorded in Germany. Even so, experts continue to review the animal population to maintain protection. According to "Onmeda" In Germany, rabies can only be transmitted through bats.

Vaccination abroad

Even if the risk of infection in Germany is low, you should inform yourself about the prevailing conditions there before traveling abroad and, if necessary, have a vaccination carried out by your doctor. In Asian and African developing countries in particular, numerous cases of rabies are counted every year. The vaccination usually provides reliable protection against infection for at least six months. In addition, you should not touch wild animals and refrain from particularly trusting specimens.

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September 28th is World Rabies Day

Even if rabies has been successfully combated in Germany, it continues to be a major problem in Africa and Asia. Around 55,000 people die there every year from the disease. The non-profit alternative "Alliance for Rabies Control" therefore calls for World Rabies Day on September 28th every year to raise awareness of the disease through awareness-raising campaigns and events. The aim is to fight rabies around the world and reduce the number of infections in people like that "National research platform for zoonoses" explained on their side.

Aching knees and stiff joints: around five million Germans are affected by osteoarthritis.

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