Dosing of graphic tasks should be didactically expedient and substantiated.
It should be borne in mind that in the process of integration, the number of teaching hours provided for the study of each educational field is redistributed without reducing their total value.
A typical educational program emphasizes the need for formative and verbal assessment. These types of assessment change the functions of the teacher in the process of monitoring and evaluating student achievement, while children, in cooperation with the teacher, gradually acquire the skills of self-assessment and self-control, ie become subjects of learning.
The initial course of language and literature education begins in the 1st grade with literacy, the purpose of which is to form first-graders’ reading and writing skills, development of communication skills, cognitive abilities, ability to communicate in Ukrainian in personal and public life …
The realization of this goal is carried out along the following content lines: “Interact orally”, “Read”, “Interact in writing”, “Investigate the media”, “Investigate language phenomena”.
The content line “Interact orally” is aimed at developing in younger students the ability to perceive, analyze, interpret and evaluate oral information and use it in various communicative situations, communicate orally with other people in dialogical and monologue forms to achieve certain life goals.
The main directions of this work in the 1st grade are the development of the following skills: to perceive by ear and correctly understand oral speech; build dialogue and small monologue oral expressions.
In the process of developing auditory skills it is necessary to develop speech hearing and the ability to understand what is heard. The development of speech hearing involves the formation of skills to distinguish in a continuous sound flow of individual elements, to identify them, to adequately perceive the intonation characteristics of speech. The development of comprehension of what is heard involves the development of skills to understand the meaning of individual elements of the text (words, phrases, sentences) and the available text as a whole.
In the 1st grade, the formation of auditory skills begins in different language units, starting with sounds. At this stage, it is advisable to offer the following types of tasks: distinguishing vowels and consonants; hard and soft consonants; consistent correct reproduction of all sounds in the heard word; auditory recognition of one-syllable, two-syllable words; word recognition with an emphasis on a certain syllable, etc.
The next stage involves the training of first-graders in memorizing the words, phrases, sentences, small in volume statements. For this purpose it is necessary to offer the following tasks: to listen to some known words and to reproduce them in the same or arbitrary sequence; from the listened number of words to choose the names of the things determined by the teacher (school supplies, clothes, etc.); remove an extra word from the topic group; determine the number of words in the audible sentence and the number of sentences in the audible text; recognize completed and incomplete sentences, etc.
The work on the formation of the ability to build a dialogue is to improve the sound pronunciation of first-graders; to enrich, clarify and activate their vocabulary; improve the ability to answer questions correctly, ask questions to others; to enrich children’s speech with formulas of speech etiquette; learn to follow the rules of communication, the norms of literary language; enter into a dialogue on available topics.
The formation of monologue expressions in first-graders should begin with work on the construction of independent coherent statements on the drawing, a series of drawings, a certain life situation. The next stage is the construction of short oral stories, descriptions, reasoning on the picture, questions, expressing their own opinion about the situation depicted in the textbook, retelling the listened or read text.
The effectiveness of the formation of these skills will contribute to the use of interactive forms of organization of educational activities, which involve constant active interaction of participants in the educational process, arouse interest, desire to perform the task.
In the process of implementing the content line “Read” in first-graders provides for the formation of the following main expected results: read aloud available texts mostly in whole words (individual words of complex structure – syllables); show understanding of their actual content; correctly intone sentences, different in purpose of utterance and intonation; express their own attitude to what is read; read dialogues from fairy tales, stories, poems by roles; have an idea of the most important sources of information: children’s books, magazines, encyclopedias, television, library, Internet; show interest, positive attitude to the book; explain their reading preferences.
According to the State Standard of Primary Education, one of the priority tasks of the New Ukrainian School is to provide conditions for the comprehensive development of the child, his talents buy essay compare and contrast, abilities, competencies and cross-cutting skills in accordance with age and individual psychophysiological characteristics and needs. Therefore, in the process of developing reading skills, it is important to take into account the reading skills acquired by children in preschool age, and to implement a differentiated approach to teaching first-graders who came to school with different levels of training.
In order to maintain the interest of first-graders in reading should use a variety of stimuli and techniques of reading, as often as possible to offer to read texts of different genres, on different media (paper, board, multimedia) and from different sources , to involve students in didactic games. situations that require the application of reading skills.
With a significant decrease in students’ interest in reading, the work with a children’s book, which is recommended to be conducted weekly, becomes important in the content of the integrated course “Literacy”. According to the current Standard of Primary General Education, the key results of such work are the development of children’s interest, love of reading, ability to perceive, transform, evaluate textual information in the process of oral interaction, skills to choose children’s books with adults , explain their choice, development of prognostic skills. determine by the cover, title and illustrations, what will be discussed in the children’s book, etc.
Determining factors for the development of first-graders’ positive motives for reading in lessons with children’s books are interesting forms of their organization and conduct, as well as the selection of appropriate content of educational material that will ensure its novelty, emotionality, development of reading interests. It is very important at each lesson to work with a small new illustrated book, in which the child will be easy to navigate, and the process of getting acquainted with it will cause positive emotions, interest, joy of communication.
1st graders have different starting opportunities to develop reading skills and reading experience. Depending on this, the teacher flexibly models the methods and techniques of work, which, on the one hand, take into account the type of children’s book (book-work, book – collection: author or different authors), genre features of the text (fairy tale, poem, story), on the other – the level of individual reading abilities of children in the class. Children who do not read yet are more likely to be students in such classes and acquire the skills necessary for a full understanding of artistic texts perceived by the ear. For students who read, the teacher uses various methods of work to involve them in independent reading of available texts or their fragments.
The structure of classes distinguishes the stages of direct practical work with a children’s book: its consideration before the perception of the text in order to predict the approximate content and after its initial perception, when a collective discussion of reading (listening), exchange of impressions based on illustrations, text material and visualization perceived (illustration, dramatization, etc.).
To a large extent, the child adopts the attitude to the book, to reading from his parents. Thus, the personal example of parents plays a significant role here. The teacher pays attention to the issue of involving the child in the book in the family circle. Important forms of cooperation with parents are individual consultations, questionnaires, workshops, photo presentations, etc.
The content line “Interact in writing” is aimed at forming in first-graders a full-fledged writing skills, the ability to select and write the title of the picture, title to the text, build and write sentences based on illustrations, life situation , adhere to the culture of writing, with the help of a teacher).
In the process of implementing this line in the 1st grade, the formation of graphic, technical, hygienic and elementary spelling skills is a priority.
Learning to write will be quick and effective when it takes place in parallel or integrated with learning to read in the form of a lesson or lesson.
The process of learning to write can be divided into three periods: preparatory, letter, post-letter, each of which lasts longer or shorter, depending on the need.
Achieving the goal – legible writing of students at the end of 1st grade with the least effort, requires the teacher to use accessible and interesting writing techniques aimed at developing coordination of hand movements (fingers, hands, forearms), eyesight, orientation in the line of the notebook grid, left-right orientation in the plane space, the perception of the letter, and the strengthening of the small muscles of the hand. Interrupting the process of writing for rest, which is mandatory (its frequency and duration depends on the writing load), in addition to physical training, it is recommended to use to practice finger manipulation with a pencil, teaching from sticks (pencils) given shapes on the desk, cutting simple shapes with scissors and etc.
Physiological features of the writing process, individual features of students’ development require a number of additional specific hygienic requirements for landing, the position of the notebook on the desk, pens in hand. Dosing of graphic tasks should be didactically expedient and substantiated.